عنوان مقاله [English]
In order to study of effects of integrated biological and chemical fertilizers on fertilizer use efficiency, grain yield and related traits to grain growth of barley (Hordeum vulgaris L.), a factorial experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with three replications in research farm of the Faculty of Agriculture Sciences, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili in 2012. Treatments were time of nitrogen application in three levels including (T1=1/3 at planting, 1/3 stem elongation and 1/3 before ear emergence), (T2=1/4 at planting, 1/2 stem elongation and tillering, 1/4 before ear emergence), (T3=1/2 at planting, 1/4 at tillering, 1/4 stem elongation, 1/4 ear emergence) and seed inoculation with biofertilizer in five levels (without inoculation as control, seed inoculation with Azotobacter chroococcum strain 5, Azospirillim lipoferum strain OF, Psedomunas putida strains 41 and 4.( Rate and effective grain filling period, yield and yield components were significantly affected by time of nitrogen application and seed inoculation with bio fertilizer. Means comparison showed that maximum of grain weight (0.0587 g), rate (0.0018 g/day) and effective grain filling period (32.63 day), yield and yield components were obtained in nitrogen application as T2×seed inoculation with Azotobacter. It seems that in order to improve yield, fertilizer use efficiency, rate and effective grain filling period, t can be suggested that be applied seed inoculation with Azotobacter×nitrogen application as T2.